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The Crisis of the Old Quantum Theory

Clayton Gearhart

Quantum Quandaries: Walther Nernst, Albert Einstein, Otto Stern, and the Specific Heat of Hydrogen

In 1911, the German physical chemist Walther Nernst argued that the new quantum theory promised to clear up long-standing puzzles in kinetic theory, particularly in understanding the discrepancies between More Quantum Quandaries: Walther Nernst, Albert Einstein, Otto Stern, and the Specific Heat of Hydrogen

Bretislav Friedrich

How a Bad Cigar Assisted at the Birth of Quantum Mechanics

In 1913, Otto Stern vowed to "quit physics if there was anything in this nonsense of Bohr's [model of the atom]. Seven years later, he proposed an experiment to put Bohr's theory to a crucial test. His aim was to decide "unequivocally between the quantum More How a Bad Cigar Assisted at the Birth of Quantum Mechanics

David Cassidy

Examining the Crisis in Quantum Theory: Its Origins, Nature, Extent, and Impact

The quantum was always a controversial and disquieting concept. The introduction of energy quanta, the Bohr atom, and Planck’s constant all stimulated efforts to comprehend their fundamental origins in terms of familiar, “classical” physics. More Examining the Crisis in Quantum Theory: Its Origins, Nature, Extent, and Impact

Domenico Guilini

Electron Spin or "klassisch nicht beschreibbare Art von Zweideutigkeit"

One of the central phenomena which led to the conviction that theoretical decriptions based on mechanical models were fundamentally incorrect at atomic scales was the anomalous Zeeman effect. In 1925 Pauli argued that it must be due to a magnetic More Electron Spin or "klassisch nicht beschreibbare Art von Zweideutigkeit"

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